Mushrooms and Fungi Feed

The Struggle Is Real, the Solution Surprising: What to Do About Galls

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By Lisa Brunette

It looks like a life form from another planet. But it's definitely terrestrial. Remember that row of evergreen screen trees we planted along our fence line? That was in the fall of 2018, when we had a little help installing a row of nine mature eastern red cedar 'Taylor' trees. This past spring, I discovered massive galls attached to the twigs of many of those trees.

The galls are quite a lot to take in when you first notice them, even in their dry state, as in the above photo. I guess it's a natural human reaction to become simultaneously disgusted and fascinated by things like that, sort of like when you keep flipping through an illustrated book on tropical skin diseases, unable to look away. We've all been there. So it was with equal measures of horror and curiosity that I began to monitor the gall situation. They first appeared in the middle of our rainy spring, and believe me, they are even more startling during wet weather, when the "teliohorns," as they're called, swell and ooze.

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It's not just a girl thing, either. My brother came by during this time, and he thought I should cut them off the trees, immediately. Anthony was likewise a bit disturbed.

But trying to remove the galls would only spread the spores. While some tree galls are the result of insect activity (feeding or laying eggs), the ones taking up residence in our cedar trees are a type of fungus. The fungus produces growths on the cedar's twig tissues, similarly to warts on human skin. Yeah, does that make it better for you?

If removing the galls isn't the right move, what should you do? The answer: nothing. The fungus doesn't actually hurt the cedar trees. They carry on as if they can spare a few twigs, no problem. So as long as you can handle the sight of those oozy teliohorns emerging out of a shiny sphere like some kind of alien invasion in your garden, it's all to the good.

But this thing isn't called 'cedar-apple rust' for nothing. The issue is the fungus has a two-host life cycle, and the second host is usually a plant in the rose family, particularly apples. 

Now, I had been warned about combining eastern red cedar with an orchard for this very reason, but I'd avoided any issues by choosing disease-resistant apple varieties, such as Arkansas black. It has withstood the spore invasion valiantly. 

But then... I slipped up.

Cedar rust on leaves

I bought a Rome beauty on an impulse, momentarily forgetting it is susceptible to cedar-apple rust. In my defense, it is a good pollinator for the aforementioned Arkansas black, and more suitable as an off-the-tree eating apple than the black, which can be hard and tart. But, yeah, when the galls moved in, the Rome beauty's leaves picked up the rust.

Unfortunately, so did one (but not both) of our serviceberries. I didn't even know cedar rust could infect serviceberries. That one sunk me low. Have you ever eaten a serviceberry? They are delicious, kind of like a combo strawberry/blueberry, only sweeter, but not when they're covered in rust. Just the sight of those teliohorns oozing out of a berry is enough to put you off. Sorry I don't have a photo; I was too sad to take one.

I did not want to use a fungicide to combat the rust since our garden is 100 percent organic; besides, by this point, the rust had already infected the leaves, so it was too late since fungicides work only as a preventative.

Then I remembered an interesting post I'd tripped across previously on a permaculture forum called Permies.com... something about using plumber's tape to combat cedar rust. I retraced my steps and found the post again: It was by someone in the Midwest, in Missouri as well, in fact, who discovered that his home's cedar shingles did not develop cedar rust even when he tried to inoculate them with the fungus. He surmised that the shingle's resistance stemmed from the introduction of metal-frame windows, which act as a kind of fungicide, due to the oxidation from the aluminum, zinc, titanium, and trace lead in the metal windows. He was able to reproduce this effect on his fruit trees with plumber's tape:

...If I attach a piece of plumber's tape (about four inches worth) to the top of the tree, the tree does not develop the fungus.  Plumber's tape is made primarily of lead, zinc and aluminum.  The rain causes the tape to slowly, ever so slowly, rust and the oxidized compound is slowly distributed over the central trunk and the top branches.  Because of the nature and shape of the tree, this same "rust" gets dusted all over the rest of the tree.  Result - just enough anti-fungal action to stop the Cedar/Apple fungus. 

What the hell, I thought, might as well try it. I ordered a coil of plumber's tape and a pair of tin snips and went to work. 

I don't know - this might have saved the Rome beauty! Once I placed the plumber's tape on the tree, the rust ceased to spread. It was early spring at this point, and all of the tree's new growth came in 100 percent without rust, including our first apple. In the next two photos, you can see the rust on the leaves below the tape, but not above it, and the apple is free of rust.

Plumber's tape

Apple

Boosted by that success, Anthony and I took the time to wrap every cedar tree plus every susceptible fruit tree (not just the serviceberry and apple, but the persimmon, too) in plumber's tape. All of the trees are now healthy, and any sign of rust from the spring has given way to fungus-free new growth.

The method checks out as safe; here's this from the original poster on Permies.com:

I have not been able to detect any heavy metal depositing in the soil around the trees (or the house for that matter).  This is a good thing, because I don't want to contaminate my soil.

As you can imagine, I'm quite relieved to see this seemingly crazy, home-grown solution worked. For a while there, I worried we would have to remove all of the cedars. They were planted in a dry, rocky strip that once served as a gravel drive to a garage that is no longer standing, and they took to it with vigor; most other trees would not. They also have high value both to wildlife (as both food and shelter) and to us (as a privacy screen and source of food and medicine, and potentially, wood).

By the way, as an interesting side note, the fungus only took up residence in the 'nativar,' a somewhat cultivated variety called 'Taylor,' but not in either of the true native Juniperus virginianas.

I'm not sure if we'll see the galls return or not next spring, and if they do, whether or not the spores will infect the fruit trees. Our other defense is an increasingly biodiverse 'food forest,' which should also help buffer against the rust. But in the meantime, I humbly give respect to the evolutionary process that produced Gymnosporangium juniperivirginianae. I appreciate its strange... dare I say? Yes: beauty.

Gall 3

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Mushrooms Become Less Mysterious - with the Right Field Guide

Missouri's Wild Mushrooms

By Lisa Brunette

Back in January, I'd asked mystery author and wildlife biologist Ellen King Rice to help me ID some of the mushrooms I'd found growing in the woods, as well as here at Dragon Flower Farm. As you might recall, we ended up turning the post into a series of tips on how to ID mushrooms, which is something no one should take casually, at least if you're looking to eat them.

One of Ellen's tips was to get a good field guide. This spring, I came across the perfect field guide for my mushroom madness: Missouri's Wild Mushrooms, by fellow St. Louisan Maxine Stone. The book is a great reference guide for ID-ing mushrooms, and it includes 24 recipes for using common edible mushrooms found in Missouri - delicious-sounding dishes like barley and blewit salad and candy cap sauce.

Missouri's Wild Mushrooms is published by the Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC), an agency I can't say enough good things about. For one, they do amazing things to help propagate the use of native plants. Through their annual seedling program, I just scored 24 seedlings for a buck a piece - yes, that's only USD 24 for 24 small trees and shrubs - including blackberries, pawpaw, and white fringe tree. They also host a wide range of fun, educational events to teach the public about everything from how to tap maples for syrup to the best spots to catch a glimpse of bald eagles in winter. This is in addition to their ongoing mission to conserve and preserve Missouri's natural world.

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MDC puts out an award-winning magazine called Missouri Conservationist - I read mine cover-to-cover every month - and they also publish a series of books, of which Missouri's Wild Mushrooms is just one. You can order MDC books in-person at conservation and nature centers or online; check out their full offering at the MDC Nature Shop. I use their Nature Notes journal to keep track of our progress at Dragon Flower Farm.

Also on wildlife biologist Ellen King Rice's advice, I've downloaded the iNaturalist app, though again, its value is limited. Now armed with that and mushroom expert Maxine Stone's excellent wild mushroom field guide, I will revisit the mushrooms in the previous post and see if I can't get some closer IDs.

Amanita Orange 2019
Photo taken in 2019 at a trail near the World Bird Sanctuary.

The first one is an iconic Amanita, most likely muscaria, although iNaturalist says it's Amanita cesarea. Most of the photos I'm finding of cesareas don't have the white flecks of fungus on top, though, so I'm going with Amanita muscaria, or fly agaric. According to the MDC, Amanitas account for 90 percent of mushroom-related deaths. In Missouri's Wild Mushrooms, Stone lists the Amanita bisporigera, or "destroying angel," as the top poisonous mushroom to avoid in Missouri. "Ingesting one cap of a destroying angel can kill a man," says the MDC.

Destroying_angel_base_04-11-13
Destroying angel. Photo courtesy MDC.

Yeah, so fine to look at and even touch - according to Stone, you can't get poisoned unless you eat them - but I wouldn't even think of tasting anything that looked remotely like either of these - amanitas are a no go.

Stone says the "lookalike" mushrooms are where a lot of people can go wrong, too. She shows which ones to watch out for in particular. She also cautions against eating mushrooms you find in your yard or the wild first without consulting a mushroom expert. Where to find one of those? Here in Missouri, she suggests the Missouri Mycological Society. But lots of states have mushroom societies; here's a full list.

Orange_Fungus_2019
Photo taken in 2019 near the Meramec River.

This specimen looks very much like a cinnabar polypore, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, judging by the guidelines in Stone's book. It has no lookalikes - which aids in identification. Though beautiful, the cinnabar polypore is not considered edible.

If I had a sample, rather than just this image, I could make a spore print to lock in the ID. Stone walks you through the process in her book, and it's fairly simple - basically setting the cap gills-down on a piece of white paper and waiting anywhere from two to 24 hours for the spores to drop. Plus, as Stone points out, "Your spore print may be a beautiful piece of art and even frameable." I can't wait for some mushrooms to pop up so I can try this!

Tree Condo Fungus1 2019
Also taken 2019, near the Meramec River.

Note all 'fruiting bodies' appearing aboveground are technically mushrooms; whereas, fungi grow mainly underground, so what you see in these two photos really are mushrooms. As pictured above, they grew in a large group, or condo, as I called it. Here's a closeup.

Tree Condo Fungus2 2019
Very likely this is dryad's saddle.

Like the cinnabar polypore, this is another 'pored bracket' type of mushroom. These can grow both singly or in layered groups. This one looks very much like the dryad's saddle, Polyporous squamosus, which is edible. But again, I'll take a spore sample first before cooking this up if I encounter it again. Another good tip from Maxine Stone is to keep a little bit of any mushroom you eat in case you need it for ID purposes in the event that someone reacts to it. Even if they're safe to eat, some people are more sensitive than others.

This last series of mushrooms - which all grew here at Dragon Flower Farm - are obviously the gilled cap-type, or Agarics. 

Hand Colony 2019

Mushroom Cap  and Violets 2019

Mushroom Gills 2019

None of the gilled cap mushrooms in Stone's guide look like these, unfortunately. The closest is the edible meadow mushroom, but the cap isn't a good match. iNaturalist says it's in the genus 'Leucoagaricus,' of which there are 90 species. The one native to North America, Leucoagaricus americanus, is edible. Again, I'd have to have a sample and take a spore print to be sure, but that's a likely guess. Maybe I'll also reach out to Maxine Stone and ask...

Fungus Cups 2019
Cup fungus, here at Dragon Flower Farm in 2019.

Lastly are the delightful cup and bird's nest fungi, which Ellen ID'd easily in our previous mushroom post. None of these are edible, but Stone agrees they're a treat to find, and I bet if you're on a mushroom hunt with the kiddos, this would be a popular one to ID.

Spore Pops 2019
Bird's nest fungi, Dragon Flower Farm, 2019.

Thanks for sticking with me on this mushroom journey. I'm curious whether any of you are getting out into the woods these days. With the lockdowns now extended to state parks, preserves, and other natural areas, it's been tough for me to find a way. We've had a long spate of dry weather - one day the temperature soared to 88° already. But we're looking at a very rainy week ahead, so maybe we'll get the same mushroom-and-fungi extravaganza we got last year here at Dragon Flower. As Maxine Stone says, "Missouri is a great place to find all kinds of wild mushrooms." What's popping up out of the ground in your state? Tell us in the comments below.

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How to Support Your Immune System with Herbs

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Image by Mabel Amber from Pixabay

Editors' note: Today on the blog, we've asked Amanda Jokerst, a certified herbalist and licensed massage therapist, to share her advice on how to stay healthy during this challenging time. We've both consulted with Amanda on our health and have been impressed with her care, experience, and especially her practical, evidence-based approach to herbal medicine and massage. In part 1, Amanda explains just why getting enough sleep, eating well, and other factors are so important. Here in part 2, she talks about specific herbs that can help, once the below steps are taken. Here's Amanda:

I'm an herbalist, so why did I relegate herbs to part 2 in this series? Because without giving time and attention to everything I outlined in part 1, herbs will be nowhere near as effective as they could be, if they are effective at all. If we aren't taking in the basic building blocks to support healthy immune system function and implementing necessary lifestyle practices such as a well-balanced diet, adequate sleep, stress reduction, and movement, we are really expecting a lot of the plants. They are not magic bullets. We have to do our part so they can do theirs.

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This and images below by Amanda Jokerst

Now for the herbs that will support your healthy lifestyle practices.

If you're having trouble sleeping, try supplementing with magnesium glycinate, or use some sleep-supporting herbs like what's found in our Get Some Zzzzs tincture formula or the Sweet Sleep tea here at Forest & Meadow Apothecary.

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As a supplement to using healthy coping strategies for life's stress, such as spending time outside and talking to others, you might further benefit from herbal support. I've been using my favorite nervous-system allies, which have been magnesium glycinate, ashwagandha, passionflower, and rose. And if you're needing some immediate support for your nervous system, I would suggest our Stress Less or Anxious Thoughts Be Gone tincture formulas or our Hug Your Heart or again, the Sweet Sleep teas can also be helpful.

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Some of us turn to alcohol when we are stressed or lonely (which is totally understandable), so try reaching for an herbal ally such as skullcap, milky oats, or passionflower to soothe and support your nervous system instead. Hops tincture can be a great ally as well (especially for hoppy beer drinkers!), providing a stronger sedative effect, which may be particularly helpful for some individuals right now.

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While exercise is key, not everyone can manage a 20- to 30-minute walk every day. If you or someone you know isn't able to engage in a lot of movement right now, try drinking some gentle lymphatic teas every day such as chickweed, cleavers, violet, or calendula.

In addition to the herbs and herbal formulas above, specific herbs can play a great role in boosting immune system.

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Astragalus is one of my favorite immune tonics. It can help stimulate white blood cells, natural killer cells, and T-lymphocytes and increase production of antibodies and interferon, making it a great ally during cold and flu season. I often use it in my clinic for reduced immunity due to chronic infection, stress, or general lack of vitality, as well as for lingering viral infections or recurring colds and upper respiratory tract infections. Astragalus can also be a supportive in cases of chronic lung weakness.

It has a mild, slightly sweet taste that most people of every age find pretty palatable. Because it doesn't have a strong flavor, you can add astragalus to soup stocks and broths (remove it before consuming) or use a tea of it to cook rice or beans – giving a medicinal boost to your food! To prepare it as a beverage, simmer about 1 tablespoon per cup of water for 15-20 minutes. You can strain and drink it right away, or let it steep for another hour or so before drinking, taking 1-3 cups per day. We have astragalus at the shop as a bulk herb, and it's also in our Immune Tonic Tincture, Immuni-Tea, and Immune Tonic Soup Base. Note: It is advised to discontinue the use of astragalus during acute fever.

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All of our medicinal mushrooms are what we call “immune amphoterics,” meaning they have a modulatory effect on the immune system. They are used for immune deficiency conditions such as cancer, AIDS, and chronic fatigue syndrome, as well as immune hyper-functioning autoimmune conditions. Reishi has immune-enhancing effects and is traditionally used for fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Shiitake and maitake both stimulate the system to bolster its ability to fight infections more quickly and efficiently.

Use 2 teaspoons of dried mushrooms to 12 oz of water, simmer for at least 1 hour, and drink 2-4 cups per day. Shiitake and maitake can also be found fresh in some grocery stores and eaten as a medicinal food. Any of these mushrooms combines nicely with astragalus for a daily immune supportive tea or as a soup base. We have reishi, shiitake (local from Ozark Forest Mushrooms!), and maitake at the shop as bulk herbs and in our Immune Tonic Soup Base.

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Holy basil falls into the category of adaptogen, a plant that helps the body to respond to stressors in a more balanced way, and is a highly revered plant in Ayurvedic medicine. It is an immunomodulator that helps to strengthen and balance the response of the immune system, and it possesses some antiviral and antibacterial properties. Holy basil is also a helpful respiratory ally that encourages our bodies to expel bronchial mucus and can aid in the natural fever response. I also love it because it smells so wonderful. Drinking teas of plants that are high in aromatic volatile oils can serve to soothe, calm, and uplift the nervous system – something we could all probably use a bit of right now! We have holy basil in bulk, and it also features in our Cheer Up Buttercup Tincture, Holy Hibiscus Vinegar, Holy Basil Shrub, and our Hug Your Heart Tea.

Editor's note: During shelter-in-place, you can order from the Forest & Meadow Clinic & Apothecary here in St. Louis for pickup and/or schedule a virtual appointment with Amanda. An online store is coming soon as well. 

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About Amanda Jokerst

Amanda is a certified clinical herbalist trained in the Vitalist tradition of herbal medicine, a licensed massage therapist, and a certified practitioner in the Arvigo techniques of Maya abdominal therapy. She is a graduate of the Colorado School of Clinical Herbalism, a 1255-hour program in Vitalist Western Herbalism, botany, herbal medicine-making and formulation, flower essences, nutrition, anatomy and physiology, pathology, and herbal safety. Amanda grew up in St. Louis, Missouri, and recently moved back after several years of study in various part of the country to open Forest & Meadow Clinic & Apothecary. She truly believes in the power of the therapies she practices, and says that offering this work to others is one of the most life-giving and soul-enriching things she's ever done.

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Authors Team Up to Pay Tribute to Fungus - and Raise Money for Cats

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All photos courtesy Ellen King Rice.

Lisa Brunette: Last week we took a magical mushroom tour with former wildlife biologist and author Ellen King Rice. Ellen and I first connected back when I lived in Lewis County in Washington state. She was just starting out on the author trail and lived in neighboring Thurston County. Both counties are primarily rural. I found the community in Lewis to be highly close-knit and tremendously supportive. I myself received a lot of support as an author, and it inspired me to give back to the community and help other authors, like Ellen. I witnessed the community continually coming out to support individuals in need as well as businesses and organizations. Ellen's project, Naked Came A Fungus, is a terrific example. 

Naked Came A Fungus is inspired by the award-winning story collections Naked Came the Stranger and Naked Came the Manatee. Cool coincidence: My writing mentor, Evelyn Wilde Mayerson, wrote one of the stories for Naked Came the Manatee, Chapter 7's "The Lock and Key." She used to teach at University of Miami, where I earned my MFA in Fiction. OK, now here's Ellen to tell us about her fun, fungus-y take.

Ellen King Rice: Fame and fortune are not finite. Too often insecure authors and artists can act as if success is a pie where one person taking a large slice means the next person will have to be contented with a small slice. Thank goodness there are creative people like Lisa who see the world as a place where there can be many pie makers - and exchanging recipes and presentation ideas means... more pie for everyone. Lisa encouraged me when I was absolutely brand new at storytelling. It was a huge lift to my heart to have a published author see value in my work. 

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Now three books into my world of thrillers set into the woods of the Pacific Northwest, I am following in Lisa's footsteps. This winter I've put together Naked Came A Fungus, which will showcase Puget Sound-area mushrooms and independent authors. Some background on the project: In 1969 two dozen writers created a literary spoof of the naughty potboilers of the day. They titled their creation Naked Came the Stranger, and it became a bestseller. A few years later, humorist Dave Barry led a group of Florida writers - including Lisa's mentor, Evelyn Mayerson - to create Naked Came the Manatee. Proceeds from the book benefited charities. 

Given that it is January, it is high time to launch Naked Came A Fungus, a showcase of fungi and writers from Puget Sound. We'll have a number of Puget Sound writers contributing stories or other material to the Naked Came A Fungus blog. Check in frequently to see if a poem, a song, a recipe, or an-out-of-this-universe experience has appeared. Each contribution will be paired with a photograph of one of the Northwest's stunning fungi (or a fungus from the destination of a traveling writer). 

The adventures will continue until the first day of spring, March 19, 2020. Want in on the fun? If you have an idea you'd like to contribute, please contact me.

Because I think we all need to have a party AND do good in the world, this project is also a fundraiser for our neighborhood cathouse, Feline Friends, a non-profit organization staffed by dedicated volunteers partnering to rescue stray cats and kittens.

May your day be filled with colorful wild mushrooms or loving pets or lots of pie - or perhaps some of each, along with a smidge of encouragement when it is most needed.

EllenKingRice

A wildlife biologist by training, Ellen King Rice is author of a three-book, fungus-themed mystery series: The EvoAngel, Underworld, and Lichenwald. In her fiction and non-fiction both, she is particularly fascinated by sub-cellular level responses to ecosystem changes and believes that we don't know near enough about the thousands of fungal species that exist all around us. She lives near Olympia, Washington. Find out more at www.ellenkingrice.com.

As with all our content, this post was not sponsored, and we received nothing in exchange for the references made here.

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So Much Fungus Among Us! Tips on How to ID the Mysterious Mushroom

Amanita Orange 2019
Spotted on the trail near the World Bird Sanctuary here in Missouri near the Meramec River.

Twenty nineteen was a really wet year for us in the Midwest. As a result, we experienced a bit of mushroom mania that began in spring and lasted clear through the fall. To pay tribute to both the magnificent mushroom and the fantastic fungus, today I've asked former wildlife biologist and author Ellen King Rice to collaborate with me on a special guest post. Here I've compiled images from Dragon Flower Farm as well as from walks in the woods. The plan was to have Ellen ID the fungus among us, but that proved a little bit tougher than either of us anticipated. So if you've got some IDs for us, please share in the comments below!

With this project I was asking Ellen to stretch outside the Pacific Northwest territory she knows best and explore the mycology of the Missouri river bluffs around St. Louis, where I frequently hike, and the suburban 1/4-acre that is our little farmstead. Because the process for identifying fungus must be quite thorough, as there's the risk that they can be poisonous, and here I was asking Ellen to ID them on the basis of a photo or two, we decided to turn this piece into a how-to instead. So along with some successful IDs and fun facts, Ellen will share some ID-ing tips.

LB: Let's start with the photo above. I believe that marshmallow fluff-meets-wart stuff on top, paired with the bright orange cap, signal the poisonous amanita. Am I right?

EKR: Some mushrooms begin growing inside an egg-shaped "leathery" sack. As the mushroom pushes up, the sack breaks apart and becomes blotches or spots on the new mushroom’s cap. The "warty" cap and the "egg cup" base are indeed hallmarks of the amanita group of mushrooms. Some of the amanitas are terribly poisonous. Some are psychoactive. A few are edible. Which leads us to the number one rule of mushrooming: Don't eat fungi until you are an absolute first-class champion at identifying the genus and species you are hunting.

But mushrooms are not nuclear waste or some spy-novel deadly dynamite. You won’t be poisoned by a mushroom if you photograph it or handle it! 

LB: Ah, so that's where the "wart" comes from; fascinating! And thanks for the balanced approach to identification. I assumed all amanitas were poisonous, so it's interesting to hear that some are actually edible. Still, the risk is pretty great, so I for one wouldn't eat anything that looks like this. Better to admire its remarkable orange hue. 

Speaking of orange, regular readers of this blog know how much I love that color, and the next fungus is in keeping with that bold preference. What's going on with this beauty?

Orange_Fungus_2019
From another Missouri hiking trail in the Meramec River area.

EKR: This fungus as well as the next three lead us to the challenges of identification. Like Sherlock Holmes, we need to pay attention to a lot of details to know the entire story of "what’s going on." While I can't with confidence identify these three, I'll instead list some ways to start Sherlocking, with pros and cons for each.

Here's my first suggestion: Use a field guide. Every region of North America has a mycological field guide. The biggest "con" for field guides is that these books are often organized by spore print color. The fungal finder is supposed to take a sample of the fungus home, lay a cap section on colored paper overnight, check the color of the dropped spores the next day, and then go to the correct section of the field guide to begin the identification process. Whew! Not always easy or possible, especially if there are pets or small children in the home. Pro: Sometimes one can page through the photos of the field guide and "bingo," quickly land on a photo that looks just like our find (Keep looking! Sometimes many things are nearly identical!).

LB: That's great. I have a laminated, map-style field guide for North American birds on a stand next to my back windows, which look out onto the bird feeders. It's been instrumental in our identification of about 20 different birds so far. I've used more elaborate field guides both in the Pacific Northwest and Florida, and I need one for the Midwest now that I'm back here. I don't own a guide to fungus, but I'll put that on my wish list, too.

Next up is this incredible 'tree condo' my brother and I happened upon one day in the woods. The first photo shows the whole 'condo,' and the second gives a zoom in. By the way, check out all that velvety moss we've got here in Missouri. To me it rivals the Pacific Northwest - at least in early spring, when these were taken. By summer, it dries up pretty well, even when it's wet like this past summer was. I think that might be due to the heat.

Tree Condo Fungus1 2019

Tree Condo Fungus2 2019

LB: The rest of the photos were all taken at Dragon Flower Farm. I should preface the first crop by letting you know we had a ton of bark mulch on our land, making use of the sheet-mulch method. So I think this curious flora was born of rotting wood chips. The first to arrive in spring were these, which I've dubbed 'fungus cups,' but that's probably wrong.

Fungus Cups 2019
At Dragon Flower Farm.

EKR: It's definitely a cup fungus. I suspect it might be Peziza repanda, the Palomino cup or a close relative -  but I’d have to look at Peziza literature and see if does grow in your area... That could take some time. 

LB: Oh, you've done so much already, Ellen! Why don't you give us another tip for how to manage this ourselves.

EKR: Go on a mushroom club outing. The pros are you’ll meet some nice people, and you may quickly learn half a dozen of the most common fungi in your area. The cons, however, are that the dogs need to stay at home, and not every outing may be kid-friendly. You’ll also be working with a group, so it may be slower or faster than you like. 

LB: That's a great idea and something I've personally never done. I've seen quite a few opportunities to go on birding walks with experts who can share tips, but I've never seen anything like that for fungus. I'll have to investigate!

From our cup fungus, we move to what I've been calling 'spore pads,' paired with what I think is slightly different, so I've named them 'spore pops.' What are these strange, alien things, Ellen?

Spore Pads 2019
When the caps pop off, you can see little seed-like capsules inside. Also, more orange! Nature loves orange.
 
Spore Pops 2019
These are darker in color, and the seed-like capsules inside are almost black.

EKR: I feel completely confident about identifying these. They are bird’s nest fungi, a distinctive group. Browse the photos here to see several species that have this wonderful nest-with-eggs look. 

LB: The pictures you linked to over at iNaturalist are amazing. I'll look for these again this year. They are pretty special.

The last series is more traditionally mushroom-shaped, and wow, did they grow to huge sizes. I asked my husband, whose hands are way bigger than mine, to pose his mitt next to them for comparison.

Hand Colony 2019
Mega mushroom mania!

EKR: I'll take this opportunity to offer my last bit of ID-ing advice: Use iNaturalist. This is a website/smart phone app that uses photo recognition software to suggest names for what you’ve just photographed. This site also has tons of information about species' ranges, seasonality, and other details. However, you should take it with a big grain of salt. It may tell you that blurry picture of a brown mushroom is a bunny or a deer. The "suggestion" is exactly that - a starting place to learn more.

LB: I've been using PlantNet, with very mixed results for exactly the reason you cited. It hasn't helped at all in trying to identify any of the above, not even the amanita, which you'd think would be clear cut. That's partly why I reached out to you. I'll try iNaturalist to see if it's any better. The most useful resource I've found is the Plant Finder index on the Missouri Botanical Garden website. You can't ID from a photo alone, but I think I've learned more about plants from this digital resource than any other. Unfortunately, though, it doesn't seem to be as robust in coverage of fungi as it is flora.

I'll share a few more photos; perhaps readers will recognize them. I believe the two photos below depict the same type of 'shroom, top and bottom.

Mushroom Cap  and Violets 2019
Caps peeking out between our native violet, Viola sororia.
 
Mushroom Gills 2019
Mushroom gills. These grew in a bed mulched with pine sawdust.

LB: The last image is of one I've never seen before. The cap was slightly transparent; you can see the green of the leaves through it.

Transparent Fringe 2019

LB: Perhaps you lovely readers can help out with some IDs in the comments section below. I do enjoy how this piece morphed into a how-to, though. Thanks for the tips, Ellen!

EllenKingRice

A wildlife biologist by training, Ellen King Rice is author of a three-book, fungus-themed mystery series: The EvoAngel, Underworld, and Lichenwald. In her fiction and non-fiction both, she is particularly fascinated by sub-cellular level responses to ecosystem changes and believes that we don't know near enough about the thousands of fungal species that exist all around us. She lives near Olympia, Washington. Find out more at www.ellenkingrice.com.

As with all our content, this post was not sponsored, and we received nothing in exchange for the references made here.

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